Selections from the Instructions of King James II and VII to his Son

The manuscript of this document is among the Stuart Papers now at Windsor Castle. According to Macpherson (Original Papers, volume 1, page 77) the instructions were originally compiled by the king while he was in Ireland in 1690. The text was published in volume 2 of The Life of James the Second, King of England edited by J.S. Clarke (London, 1816), pages 617 - 647. Selections of the text can be found in Charles Petrie's The Jacobite Movement: The First Phase, 1688-1716 (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1948), pages 221 - 227.

Kings, being accountable for none of their actions but to God and themselves, ought to be more cautious and circumspect than those who are in lower stations, and, as it is the duty of subjects to pay true allegiance to him and to observe his laws, so a king is bound by his office to have a fatherly love and care of them; of which number you being the first, I look on myself as obliged to give you these following articles, which I am the more enduced to do, considering your age, my own, and the present posture of my affairs.

In the first place, serve God in all things, as becomes a good Christian and a zealous Catholic of the Church of Rome, which is the only true Catholic and Apostolic Church, and let no human consideration of any kind prevail with you to depart from her; remember always that kings, princes and all the great ones of the world, must one day give account of all their actions before the great tribunal where everyone will be judged according to his doings. Consider you came into the world to serve God Almighty and not only to please yourself, and that by him kings reign, and that without his particular protection nothing you undertake can prosper. Serve the Lord in the days of thy youth, and so it shall be well with thee in the land of the living; begin by times to do it; defer it not; remember more is expected from persons in eminent stations than from others. Their example does much and will be followed, whatsoever it be. Have a great care of letting any loose liver or atheistical persons insinuate themselves into your confidence or pleasures; none such are to be trusted, no more than those who make their gold their God. They will all fail you in time of trouble, so must all such as have no principles of Christianity. It is want of sound reason and judgment, as well as inconsideration which makes men bad Christians and knaves between man and man; whosoever is true to his God, will, nay must be so to his king. Employ such, rely on such, and let none but such have your confidence and favour. And though it is impossible for a king to make use of none but such, let such always have the preference. Have a care how you trust a Latitudinarain; they are generally atheists in their principles and knaves in their nature. As for Trimmers they are generally cowards, want sound judgment, for had they any share in it, they could not be it. In all ages and in all countries there has still been such pitiful sort [of] creatures, even so long since as Don Henrique, King of Castile, brother to Don Pedro the Cruel; you would do well to read what Don Henrique said to his son on his death bed, towards good advice.

If it please God to restore me (which I trust in his goodness he will do) I may then hope to settle all things so as may make it easier for you to govern all my dominions with safety to the monarchy, and the satisfaction of all the subjects; no king can be happy without his subjects be at ease, and the people cannot be secure of enjoying their own without the King be at his ease also, and in a condition to protect them and secure his own right; therefore preserve your prerogative, but disturb not the subjects in their property, nor conscience, remember the great precept, Do as you would be done to, for that is the law and the prophets. Be very careful that none under you oppress the people, or torment them with vexations, suits, or projects: Remember a king ought to be the father of his people, and must have a fatherly tenderness for them. Live in peace and quiet with all your neighbours, and know that kings and princes may be as great robbers as thieves and pirates, and will receive their punishment for taking anything unjustly from them, at the great tribunal, and be not carried away by ambition or thoughts of glory in this world, to make you forget that divine precept, and never be persuaded to go about to enlarge your territories by unjust acquisitions, be content with what is your own. Endeavour to settle liberty of conscience by a law. It was a great misfortune to the people as well as to the Crown the passing the Habeas Corpus Act, since it obliges the Crown to keep a greater force on foot than it needed otherwise to preserve the Government, and encourages disaffected, turbulent, and unquiet spirits to contrive and carry on with more security to themselves their wicked designs; it was contrived and carried on by the Earl of Shaftesbury to that intent.

Be never without a considerable body of Catholic troops without which you cannot be safe; then will people thank you for liberty of conscience. Be not persuaded by any to depart from that. Our Blessed Saviour whipped people out of the Temple, but I never heard he commanded any should be forced into it; it is a particular grace and favour that God Almighty shows to any, who He enlightens so as to embrace the true religion, it is by gentleness, instruction, and good example, people are to be gained and not frightened into it, and I make no doubt if once liberty of conscience be well fixed, many conversions will ensue, which is a truth too many of the Protestants are persuaded of, Church of England men as well as others, and so will require more care and dexterity to obtain it.

Nothing has been more fatal to men, and to great men, than the letting themselves go to the forbidden love of women; of all the vices it is most bewitching and harder to be mastered if it be not crushed in the very end, to a vice so universal and so followed by young men, that few there are that will give themselves time to consider the danger of it, being led away by ill example, as well as other suggestions and allurements of the devil, the common enemy of mankind; none ought to be more on their guard than you, since it has pleased God to let you be born what you are, for the greater men are, the more they are exposed, especially if they enjoy peace, plenty and quiet, and to make one the more on one's guard we have but to remember that terrible example of the royal prophet King David, who though a man after God's own heart, was no sooner settled in his kingdom, but he forgot the great things God had done for him, and let himself be overcome by the sight of a beautiful woman, not only to offend God by adultery, but murder also; may all that have the misfortune to fall into any of those enormous crimes remember and imitate his true and hearty repentance, and do not forget the punishment and troubles God brought on him in this world, that he might spare him in that to come. I cannot pretend to say more to you than what those good people I have put to you and your confessor have done, to persuade you to live up to the height of perfection, then that you will remember all the good instructions they have given you, and that you will continue reading of good books and avoid idleness as well as ill company; the first lays one open to all sorts of temptations, and for the other it is a miracle if one be not led away by them; but above all abhor and detest profane and atheistical talkers and layers, who do as much as in them lies to overturn Christianity by their turning all religious things and practices into ridicule, not only by their discourses, but by their way of living, of which last sort God knows there are but too many. What I say and am going to say is not only grounded on Christianity and sound reason, but on experience also, and though it is true I had always an aversion to profane and atheistical men, yet I must own with shame and confusion, I let myself go too much to the love of women, which but for too long got the better of me, by ill example; and my not being enough upon my guard at the first attacks, of so dangerous an enemy, and not avoiding as one ought, the occasions which offer themselves every day, and relying too much upon my own strength, and having a better opinion of myself than I ought to have had. I have paid dear for it, and would have you avoid those faults I have run into, and let no ill example or natural inclination carry you away against sense and good reason; do but consider that you are a Christian, and the obligations you lie under for so great a blessing, and the recompense you are sure of, if you live like one, and the miserable condition you will be in, if you die in sin. Begin early to live well; it will be much easier to continue in it than to repent after one has fallen. the Church declares the conversion of a sinner is a greater miracle than the raising one from the dead; and even as to this world, none but such as led a good Christian life can be at any ease and quiet in it. Every sin carries its sting with it; nothing can fill the heart of man, or make him truly happy, but the love of God. Riches, honours, voluptious pleasures are but vanity and vexation of spirit; it is the saying of the wisest man that ever was, and that had enjoyed it more than anyone either before or after him. Do but weigh and consider well the folly of such as give themselves up to any vice; they are always uneasy and enjoy neither rest nor quiet, and never compass what they aim at. A covetous man never thinks he has enough, and never enjoys what he has, grudges himself the very necessaries of life, lays aside all thoughts of honour and conscience to scrape a little riches together, dies as miserable as he lived, and when that fatal hour for him comes, what is he the better for all his painful or ill got wealth? What will be his trouble to part with what his heart was so set upon, and what prospect can he have, when he has not time to repent, and make satisfaction, but hell and damnation?

And now as to your ambitious and proud men: they also enjoy neither rest nor quiet, what pains do they take to become great in the world, to be respected, to be admired, what hardships do not they undrgo, nay many times what mean thing leave they not undone, to satisfy that airy fancy of theirs. And when they have gained one point, [they] are as ever from being at ease, aspire yet to be greater, and at last fall headlong into a dismal eternity for thm, when too late they find their folly and madness, and curse the day they gave themselves up to ambition.

Who can be more unhappy in this world than a proud man; he is hated and despised by everybody; people take pleasure to vex him, which is easily done by not showing him that respect and civility which they show to others of his rank and quality. I have often seen it done on purpose to make them uneasy; people take pleasure in it to vex them. Pride and ambition are the sins of Lucifer. Pride has been one of the chief causes of all the heresies have ever been, and ought to be avoided by all men, and more especially by princes and great men. Remember one cannot see the face of God without humility. Be careful that anger get not the mastery of you at any time; it offends God, displeases and disobliges men, and for the time it lasts deprives one both of reason and judgment. Many great men have been lost by it, for what they say is not so eaily forgotten, and nothing but Christianity or fear makes men not resent it; it renders a prince most miserable, for how can he govern others, that cannot master his own passions. Set not your heart upon good cheer, and avoid all sort of excess; they ruin one's health, make one unfit for busines, even in this world, and if once one accustoms one's self to drink too largely, it is hard to leave it off. If it meets with a hot constitution, it soon kills them; if a phlegmatical it besots them; besides all other inconveniences, few are reclaimed that once let themselves go to it. I hope I need not enlarge on this subject, since few princes in these more civilised nations have been guilty of those excesses.

What you ought to arm yourself most against are the sins of the flesh, princes and great men being more exposed to those temptations than others, especially if tehy enjoy peace and quiet. This vice carries its sting with it, as well as all others, and with more variety it has that which is common with the others, wihcih is that one is never satisfied, and no sooner has one obtained one object, but that very often at the expense of one's health, estate, nay honour and reputation, one desires change, and exposes himself again to all the former inconveniences. Those of the greatest quality are not excepted, for if they once let themselves go, and give themselves up to these unlawful and dangerous affections, they are more exposed to the censure of the world than others of a lower sphere, and have much more to answer for than others for the ill example they give, and are as liable to all the chagrins of men of less figure, and none more apt to be deceived than themselves, for the most part it is not for themselves, let them really be never so agreeable in their persons or conversations, bur for their quality and bein in a condition to make great settlements for them, and to satisfy their vanity. I speak knowingly, and nothing but what I have seen and has been related to me by undeniable witnesses, and I never knew or heard of but one who did not one way or other deceive their gallant, and am persuaded that she was misled merely by the love of the person of the prince which she has shown by her quitting the world and going into a nunnery of a very strict rule, where she has lived ever since a great example of penance and mortification; and to make good what I have said, all the world knows how most of those fine ladies have behaved themselves, not only after their gallants had quitted them for others, but while their greatest favour lasted, by having intrigues with others and giving with one hand to their true inclination, what they got from their abused great man, who was the only person who did not perceive how he was abused, and if they did, were so bewitched and imposed on by their fair ladies, as not to break quite with them, nor use them as they deserved. Would but kings, princes and great men consider and take warning of these kind of dangerous women, they would sooner take a viper into their bosom, than one of these false and flattering creatures; ancient histories are full of dismal relations of what have happened to kings, great men, and whole nations, on the account of women; wars, desolation of countries, besides private murders and blood-shed as well as ruin of private families which latter we in our days have seen happen but too often. I wish to God that all men of all sorts and conditions would but reflect on what I say on this subject, and but consider with themselves the ruin and loss of reputation it brings on them with relation to this world, as well as to the other; no galley-slave is half so miserable as those bewitched men are, for they know what they have to trust to, that they cannot be worse than they are, and have some rest and quiet; but these have non at all, being exposed to all the inconveniences which flow from their own jealousy, the covetous or haughty temper of their mistresses, who seldom or never satisfied till the poor man (I call him so let him be never so great) has, if a private man ruined his estate, as well as his reputation, and then they squander it away, as I have already said, and though kings and princes have more to give , and so are not liable to one part of it, I mean of running out of house and home, and laving their children on the parish, yet they are exposed to all the other misfortunes of other people, even in being uneasy in their affairs, and laying themselves open to their private and public enemies, who will not fail to make use of that their weakness; which we have seen in our days, of which I cannot forbear giving one instance, for when at a club of some of the mutinous and antimonarchical Lords and Commons, it was proposed by some to fall upon the mistresses, the Lord Mordant the father, said, By no means, let us rather erect status for them, for were it not for them the King would not run into debt and then would have no need of us. You see how careful kings as well as othe rpeople ought to be not to let themselves be led away by any vice; the inconveniences are great and fatal, for had not the king your uncle had that weakness which crept in him insensibly and by degrees, he had been in all appearance a great and happy king, and had done great things for the glory of God and the good of his subjects; for he had courage, judgment, wit, and all qualities fit for a king, as did more eminently appear in the later end of his reign, by his mastering and getting the better of the factions which drove so violently against him and the monarchy, under the pretence of excluding me and the fears they affected to have of being overrun with popery. And to let you see how little real pleasure and satisfaction anyone has that lets themselves go to unlawful pleasures, I do assure you, that the king my brother was never two days together without having some sensible chagrin and displeasure, and, I say it knowingly, never without uneasiness occasioned by those women. It is not proper for his and their sakes to enter into particulars, or else I would do it exactly, by which it would appear how little faith or sense of kindness they had for him, who showed them such marks of his concern and of his liberality, nay profusenss to them, what care they took to enrich themselves, to get marks of favour, preferment, and other conveniences on their relations, or such as made their court tot hem, how unfit so ever they might be, never considering anything but themselves, not caring how they exposed the king, so they gratified their pride, their covetous humour, or revenge on those [who] would not make their court to them, letting themselves be made use on by private cabals and public enemies of the crown, to the great prejudice of the government, which was vey apparent in the disgrace of the Lord Chancellor Hyde, and the carrying on so far and so violently the exclusion against me. The first instance proceeded froom revenge, and the latter from love of money, the factious party having promised the lady then in power, one hundred thousand pounds if she could prevail with the king to consent to it, I mean the exclusion, and truly she did her weak endeavours, for (as she has since owned to me) she begged on her knees the King to consent to it. Beware of such kind of cattle; they never consider but themselves; do not believe them, let them say never so much to the contrary. Can one be so weak as to believe that they that have laid all conscience and shame aside, will be true to any, but will be carried away by inclination or interest. I speak but too knowingly in these matters, having had the misfortune to have been led away and blinded by such unlawful pleasures, for which I ask from the bottom of my soul God Almighty pardon. But what I have said and instanced as to the king my brother, was not only his fate, but will be so to any who have such unlawful intrigues, especially, that of never being at ease and quiet, and anyone that will be ingenuous cannot help owning it, therefoe to be at ease and quiet in this world, as well as to secure a happy eternity, let no vice get the mastery of you; they carry all their stings with them; the best way to preserve one's self from them is to keep them at arms end, not to let one's self go to a beginning inclination, and not to rely upon one's own strength, and to avoid all occasions that might by degrees and almost unperceivedly draw one into such dangerous inconveniences. Princes must be more on their guard than others, there being in all courts men that are given that way themselves, who to cover their own vices and to kepp themselves in countenance, will use all their endeavours, all their skill, to engage princes into such dangerous and unlawful courses. Others in hopes to ingratiate themselves with their princes, or masters, especially such as know themselves so well as to be sensible they want merit to advance their fortune by any lawful ways, will make use of such mean and pitiful ones of raising themselves, not caring what the world thinks of them so they gain their point. Abhor such sad wretches and never trust them, for they who have so little Christianity and have such mean souls, will for a little gain sell you and betray you. Do not wonder if I enlarge so much on this subject, having been but too much led away by it myself, having found by sad experience all what I have said on it to be true, and I cannot but remember and take notice of what one of our English historians observes and remarks concerning Henry II, that he was punished for his sin of incontinence, to which he was much addicted, by the rebellion of all his four sons, who in their several turns joined with the factions and took arms against him, though at last returned to their duty. I cannot help observing also, that others of our kings have been severely punished by God Almighty for the same sins in their posterity, namely Edward IV and Henry VIII. Both the sons of the first were murdered by their uncle Richard III, and the crown taken from that branch of the Royal Family and given to that of his mortal enemy. And for Henry VIII, who took such pains as well as indirect and unchristian ways to have successors, even to get an act of Parliament passed, under colour of which he declared a natural son of his, his heir, and did all that in him lay to exclude his sister's the Queen of Scots' children from inheriting in their turn the crown of England. But the divine providence ordered it other ways, took away his natural son, and though his three remaining children succeeded him, yet they all died without children, and the kingdom came to the line of Scotland. The same observation could be made of other kingdoms, of which I shall name only Henry II of France, who had four sons who grew up to men's estate, three of which successively had the crown, and all died without legitimate children, as did the other brother the Duke of Alenšon, and with them ended the family of Valois, and the crown came to those of Bourbon, in the person of my grandfather Henry IV. And to come to what I have seen myself, and ought to weigh very much with you, the late King my brother had the misfortune to be much addicted to that fatal vice, had children by all his owned mistresses and none by the Queen, besides which he had the mortification to have the Duke of Monmouth, who he believed to be his son (though all the knowing world as well as myself had many convincing reasons to think the contrary, and that he was Robert Sidney's) fly in his face and join with the Earl of Shaftesbury and the factious party, in the design they had to seize his person and rise in rebellion against him, though at the same time he showed him all the tenderness of a father, and the kindness of a friend, doing things for him which ought to have made him make a better return than he did.

I must now speak as to myself, as a great punishment God inflicts on such as have had the misfortune to be led away by the unlawful love of women, even in this world, to reclaim them and serve for an example and warning to all the world. I praise his divine goodness for all the mortifications and punishments he has been pleased out of his infinite mercy to inflict on me, which had he not been pleased out of his infinite mercy to inflict on me, which had he not been pleased to repeat often, I have but too much reason to apprehend I should not have been awakended out of the lethargy and insensibility I was in, and that even from the very time of the restoration, by the loss of a brother, and a sister within the very first year, after which hardly a year past without some sensible mortification as loss of chidren, mother, wife, sister, or some of the best of my friends, and last of all, the letting me be driven out of my three kingdoms by the means and contrivance of a son-in-law, as well as nephew, and my two daughters. For all which I praise God, and look on myself as much happier than ever I was in all my life, having that quiet of mind and inward peace which cannot be understood, or enjoyed, but by such as have an entire resignation for the will of God, Christian humility, a hearty repentance for sins past, and such a love of God, as has made one resolve by the help of his grace never to offend his divine goodness.

There is another great inconvenience (which I think I have not yet mentioned) which attends kings and great men having of mistresses, which is, the children they have by those fair ladies, who will never be at quiet till they are owned, have great titles given them, which consequently require great establishments, and this is pressed on by their relations, friends, and most commonly even by flatterin ministers who are at the head of affairs, to fix their credit, or for some by ends of their own; for the most part, those gentlemen as well mistresses seldom consider the true interest of their masters, but sacrifice that to enrich or preserve themselves when in danger to be fallen on by Parliament, or some great competitor, of which I could give many instances of my own knowledge. Then when they (the children) grow up to be men and women, they (the men) are never satisfied, except they have the places of the greatest honour and profit, according to what they turn themselves to, and even then, many times are not easy, being apt to be puffed and blown up by loose livers and needy men that make their court to them, for their private ends without considering them in the least, and all this deos not only make the unfortunate prince their father uneasy on that account, but dissatisfies many great any deserving men, since it takes almost from them the hopes of being advanced, and finding their accounts under the government. Besides this, it is very chargeable and expensive, and hard for to find out fonds and establishments such as are fit to be given, when once owned, and may be not equal to what they expect. I am sure it has been bery hard and inconvenient for a king of England, and considering the condition of the crown and the constitution of the government must always be so. The womenkind of them also are no less troublesome and expensive; great portions must be found for them, and often people of no great merit are advanced to great places, or made peers to marry them, grow high and insolent driven on by their own ambition or covetousness, or their wives, which draws on many troubles, vexations and inconveniences.

And now I must give you warning not to let yourself at any time be carried away by heat of youth, ambition or flattering interest to embark yourself in an offensive war, none of which can be justified by Christianity or morality. Kings and princes can no more justify their taking from their neighbours, but by way of reprisal towns or provinces, than thieves of highway men their unlawful gains. Remember that maxim of Christ: "That one must not do ill that good may follow," and the other, "Be content with what is your own," which does not hinder kings and states from preserving and defending what is justly theirs by taking arms and repelling force by force; they owe that to themselves and to their subjects, but it is a terrible thing to begin unjust war. Consider the consequences of it, both as to this world and the next, no forgiveness without restitution. Besides what desolation does it not bring upon whole kingdoms and provinces, and though armies that are well paid and under good discipline may be hindered from committing great disorders even in an enemy's country, yet what devastations does it not cause in an active war, which cannot be avoided to the ruin of thousands of poor people. And Besides consciencious reasons in point of government and police, a king of England ought to be more cautious than any others, I mean a lawful one (for usurpers may well take other measures to support their tyranny, minding as little the good of the nation, as they do Christianity) since he must have the help of his Parliament to maintain and carry it on, and if once he run in debt, runs great hazard of his crown, by having things imposed on him, tending to the ruin of the monarchy, of which there have been too many instances in all times, and fatal ones since I came into the world.

For the same reason a king of England ought to be careful to live within his revenue, and not to let himself be carried away to exceed his income, by flatterers or ill ministers, who designedly would run one into debt to betray him to a Parliament. Besides which, not to have need of a parliament do all things that are truly popular, lt not your ministers or those in your pay, whether civil or military, oppress or domineer over their fellow subjects, or make use of your authority, or the power put into their hands by you, to do it, and where you find any of them failing, lay them aside and punish them yourself, that ill men, and a republican spirit in a parliament may not have a pretence to tear them from you, and by that means weaken your power and discourage honest men from serving you faithfully. And that you may not be imposed on by flatterers on the one side, nor by those who would lessen the power and authority of the crown, make it one of your businesses to know the true constitution of the government, that you may keep yourself as well as the parliament within its true bounds. In the next place study the trade of the nation, and encourage it by all lawful means; it is that which will make you at ease at home and considerable abroad, and preserve the mastery of the sea, for without that England cannot be safe.

As to our ancient Kingdom of Scotland, take all care to let no alterations be made in the government of that Kingdom; they will stand by the Crown, and the Crown must stand by them for thought here has been rebellions and revolutions, as well as in other countries, the body of the nobility and gentry, and the generality of the commons are very loyal and monarchical especially the commons by North Forth and all the Highlanders, except the Campbells; the rest of Scotland being the only place where there are numbers amongst the commons of rigid Presbyterians, and Enthusiasts and feild Conventiclers, the first of which are the most dangerous, and will be always bitter enemies to the monarchy and so ought to be observed, and kept out of any share of the government; the others, though now and then troublesome, are less to be feared, hardly a gentleman amongst them, and of so extravagant principles as they can never agree amongst themselves. Trust none in the government but those of the ancient loyal families that have had no taint of Presb[yterianism] or accustomed to rebel; be kind to the Highlanders especially to those clans who have always stuck to the Crown; let their chief dependance be on the Crown, without doing wrong to such of the nobility as have interest in those parts. It is the true interest of the Crown to keep that Kingdom separate from England, and to be governed by their own laws and constitutions; look on any one who should propose though under some specious pretence, the uniting of the two kingdoms, to be weak men, bribed by some private concerns, or as enemies to the monarchy: Scotland as it is, being a great support to it, which could be of none if united, which is to say, swallowed up by England, as it was in Cromwell's time. Great care must be taken that no one great man of family get the government so into their hands, as to tyrannise over the rest of their countrymen, they being naturally inclined to it. To avoid that, there must always be two Secretaries of State, one to reside at Court and the other in Scotland, and to relieve one another every six or twelve months, and that the Secretaries may not engross all the power into their hand (which they have been but too apt to) to have two of three of the Council to reside by turns also at London, and to have set Council days for the affairs of that Kingdom, that you may not only hear from one hand what passes in that country. The constitutions of the parliament there are very good, and ought not to be altered, especially that of the Lords of the Articles, for by that means a Parliament can do no great harm, and I have observed, that those who had a mind to be troublesome and to have it in their power to be so, endeavoured to take that great prerogative from the Crown. As to the Highlandds, send and encourage missionaries amongst them and establish schools there, that they may have of their country men to be their pastors, and not be beholding only to the Irish for to be supplied with priests, and make some settlement on the Scots College at Paris for the breeding up young men to be fitly qualified for that mission; it is what you are bound to do both as a good Christian and a king.

As to Ireland, it is the interest of the Crown to improve that Kingdom as well as the rest of their Dominions, all that may be, and to order it so as their chief dependance may be in the Crown; this will please the old natives of whom especial care must be taken, as well for justice sake as for their loyalty and great sufferings in the lat war, and to keep up a Catholic interest there, that at least in one of the kingdoms there may be a superiority of those of that persuasion, and to make them teh more considerable, great care must be taken to civilise the ancient families, by having the sons of the chief of them bred up in England, even at the charge of the Crown, when they have not wherewithal out of their own estate to do it, by which means they will have greater dependence on the Crown, and by degrees be weaned from their natural hatred against the English, be more civilised, and learn to improve their estates, by making plantations and improving their land as the English and Scots have done wheresoever they have settled; this with the charge the Crown should be at in setting up schools, to teach the children of the old natives English, would by degrees wear out the Irish language, which would be for the advantage of the body of the inhabitants, whether new or old, and would contribute much to lessen the animosities that are amongst them.

As to the Catholic clergy, great care should be taken to fill the dignities with able, learned, and men of exemplary lives, and to break off that evil which ahs been too much practised, of giving orders to young men and then sending them abroad to study. It would not be amiss to make some few of the English clergy bishops there, and to set up colleges that teh youth might not be obliged to be sent to study beyond seas.

As to the civil government, the old practice is very good and needs not be changed in any material point, but that of having Cath[olics] in employments there, being so great partiality amongst the nations that the government as well as people in general should suffer by it, for the Ulster and Munster men cannot endure one another, and the Mack's and O's do not love the Leinster men, they (generally speaking) being of the old English families which first conquered that kingdom and planted there, and have yet less kindness for such as have gone over thither since. And though for the good of trade and improvement of that kingdom the English interest must be supported, yete there must be great care taken not to trust them too far, they being generally ill principled and republicans, and none but trusty men ought to be put into the garrisons, which need be but few, as Kingsale, Duncannon, Galloway, Londonderry, Athlone and Charlemont, which last place should be enlarged to serve for magazine for all the North.

It is not safe to let any of the natives of Ireland be governors of these above named places, nor to have any troops in them but English, Scots or strangers, not to tempt temper and easily led by their chiefs and clergy, and bear with great impatience the English yoke, and one cannot beat it into their heads, that several of the O's and Mack's, who were forfeited for rebelling in King James I's time, and before, ought to be kept out of their estates and will always be ready to rise in arms against the English, and endeavour to bring in strangers to support them. And to please the nobility and gentry and chief of clans it will be necessary to have several regiments of the natives, but let them serve in England, Scotland, and elsewhere. No native to be Lord Lieutenant nor no Englishmen that has an estate in that Kingdom or great relations there, to be changed every three years, to buy no land there.

Be very careful in the choice of your chief ministers; it is of the last concern to you, it being impossible for a prince to do all himself. They must not only be men of good sense and sound judgment, but of great probity and well founded as to Christianity, and that it appear by their way of living; for a loose liver, or one that by his actions or discourses shows himself profane or atheistically inclined, never trust or rely on, for how can you expect that those that fly in God Almighty's face everyday, can be thoroughly true to their king, when what they think thwarts their worldly interest is not consistent with their loyalty? I speak knowingly of this, and by experience, and never knew but one of the lat king my brother's ministers, namely the Lord Clifford, that served him throughtout faithfully, and without reproach. Let them see you have entire trust and confidence in them, but let them not impose upon you, the favours and graces you do; let those on whom you bestow them be sensible they owe them wholly to yourself, and not to others, or their own importunity. Let your ears be open to such as you know to be good men, that you may be truly informed of all truths, which others might not be willing you should be informed of. You ought to take the same care in the choice of your domestic servants, and such as you employ in any place of trust, for besides the reasons already given, it will make you beloved by all good men, and encourage others to lead more Christian lives, or at least hinder them from giving public scandal, when they see profane and loose-livers discountenanced. And let not any ones being a Catholic exempt him from these rules, for I may truly say they are more inexcusable than most Protestants, ahving generally been better instructed, and it behooves you, as well as them (I mean Catholics), to be more careful and circumspect in all your actions, you being to govern and they living amongst Protestants, who will remark and censure the least slip you or any of our persuasion makes, and object that it is other reasons more than true conviction that makes us stick to and support our holy religion. And how can we convince them that ours is the true faith, which we have received from our blessed Saviour and his apostles, better than by taking up his cross and following their examples, and endeavouring ot live up to the height of perfection, not to neglect anything that may contribute to it that is consistent with one's calling. I have given you good governors and preceptors, that you may be well instructed both as to Christianity and morality, which in effect agree very well together, with this difference, that whosoever is a good Christian must be a good moral man, but the same consequence does not always follow morality; and when it shall please God to bring you to full age of discretion, do not forget the good instructions you have received.

To be careful in the choice of Officers of State and all your family, even of those whose palces are not esteemed as formerly, by the abuse of putting in mean people for money, favour, or partiality as Esquires of the Body, Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber, Gentlemen Ushers both of the Privy Chamber and Presence and Quarter Waiters, Gentlemen Pensionaries, Yeomen of the Guard. The old method was very good which was not broke until the king my brother's restoration.

Civil offices to be regulated:
Secretary of State
Chamberlain of the Household
Groom of the Stole
Master of the Horse
Treasury, Attorney, and Solicitor.

Military employments:
General officers of the land forces
Master of the Ordinance
Commissary General of the Musters.

Never but in commission it being too great for any one man; it were good to have one of the number of commissionaries (which should be but five) to be one that has been com[missioned] of the customs.
Query about fees.
The Secretary to be still named by the king; the rest as now.

Secretaries of State:
To be four in number, one for foreign affairs, one for home affairs, one for the war, one for the navy, none to take fees.
Each of their chief clerks to be named by the king to have warrants to be so, and salaries, and to remain in their places thought the Secretary shall chance to die or be removed; that books of entries remain in the office; that at the end of every year the Secretary take care that authentic copies of treaties, public letters and such other papers as need to be lodged in the paper office be sent there.
Query: whether necessary, if the former method be observed, to have such paper office; whether fees, or none at all; what salaries to give the Secretaries of State, their clerks and underclerks.
No settled money for intelligence
To settle a way how that shall be done.

No offices to be sold upon severe penalties, but for deceny's sake to address tot he chief officer for him to propose him to the king. If such officer do not do it, such pretender may address by any friend, or straight to the king by petition. The chief officer upon any vacancy to advertise the king of it, and know his pleasure.

The perquisites claimed by ill custom by the Chamberlain of the Household, Master of the Horse, or other great officers either above or below stairs, be laid aside, and the same method used as by the Admiral, who until the late king's time enjoyed it.

The Attorney and Solicitor General not to plead for any but the king; to have good salaries.

Some ingenious young lawyers to have pensions from the Crown to apply themselves to study the prerogative, and such, if able, advanced to the above named places.

A Chancellor, no lawyer, a nobleman, or bishop.

Commissioners of the Treasury five: three Church of England, one Catholic, and one Dissenter.

No Admiral nor Commissionary of the Admiralty.

Cabinet Council: two Secretaries of State, Secretary of War, of Admiralty, first Commissioner of Treasury, and two others.

Scretaries of State: one of them Catholic, the other Protestant; Secretary War, Catholic; Secretary of the Navy, Protestant.

Lord Lieutenants to have salaries, good Dep[uty] Lieutenants.

Army, Household, Bed Chamber, most Catholics.

Ambassadors and no Envoys, Catholics and Protestants.

As many Catholics as can be in the Army, some Ch[urch] of England, and Dissenters.

This page is maintained by Noel S. McFerran ( and was last updated March 14, 2014.
© Noel S. McFerran 2000-2014.